David Jeffrey Ljung Madison

Verification Engineer Success Stories

Fullchip Verification of a New VLIW Architecture

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I found an amazing company (which I stayed with for many years) that was developing a completely original VLIW processor. They had started design but did not have anyone for verification, and that's when I was brought in.

This was a new company without lots of hiring resources, so I was their only solution and their only employee for CPU verification.

The Design

The chip was a VLIW CPU with a completely new instruction set. Packing of the instructions was a software task, handled by the compiler instead of on chip. Furthermore, the way that instructions were packed was often sacrificed in order to accomplish speed or to simplify the design. This led to some incredibly complex packing rules (the most complex I have come across in a VLIW design and I've worked with a few).

The Solution

Since I was the only verification engineer, I would need to automate as much of my job as possible, and I needed a way to accomplish full coverage with just the fullchip testbench (we later added another testbench to deal with its custom DMA setup for I/O, but that's another success story).

I sat down with my new team for a number of days and they gave me a brain dump of how the architecture worked. I needed to come up with a code generator that could stimulate the chip with essentially all of the different possibly combinations of instructions with all of the interesting operands.

I first realized that I could write a tool that would read the spec (a PDF document) and extract a list of all the possible instructions and their operands. I could also encode all the packing rules found in the spec as well. I told the team that I would write a code generator that would take this list of rules for legal instructions and all the legal packings, and essentially do a reversal of these rules to create all the possible VLIW words we would need to test, somewhat like a constraint solver in reverse.

The designer (who is one of the best designers I've worked with) asked me when I would finish something like this, and I told him I could have something ready in a couple weeks. The team laughed. (I think they were beginning to reconsider their new hire.)

Three weeks later I had a working model that could start generating code.
(Okay, so I suppose I was a week behind my estimate :)

It took a great deal of time to get through all the complex corner cases, but we had something that could start finding bugs right away, and as the design grew or changed, I could merely update the packing rules in the tool and allow the tool to continue to reverse them to find all possible packings. And better yet, since the set of legal instructions was parsed directly from the spec, if the spec ever changed I could just checkout a copy of the new spec and the code generator was automatically updated.


After developing the tool to work with the CPU as it grew, we were able to immediately handle design changes (and there were many as this was a totally custom CPU). Eventually we were able to handle the verification turnaround so quickly that I was taken off of spending my full-time on this job and ended up handling a number of software tools for the company as my main task. I had written myself out of a job, but fortunately they had other work for me. Verification had become almost a push-button task for this CPU.

Interested in having a success story like this at your company? Consider hiring me to see how it can be done.

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